Foodborne Outbreak Investigation – Social&Family Issues Example

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"Foodborne Outbreak Investigation"  is a wonderful example of a paper on social and family issues. The total cost of foodborne illnesses in America if tremendous, considering losses because of medical costs, productivity losses or even in some cases, premature death. Foodborne illnesses in America are a major cause of economic burden, preventable death, and personal distress. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration estimates that the annual cost of foodborne illness according to reduced productivity, pain and suffering and medical costs is estimated to range from $10 to $83 billion (www. fda. gov, p. 1-2).

The following paper will explore the investigation of a foodborne outbreak. A description of the biological foodborne hazard has been provided. A synopsis of the outbreak has also been provided, and the investigation discuss.                                         The food-borne hazard, Salmonella serotype I 4,[5], 12: I : -, is a bacteria. This hazard has been recently reported by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) as an emerging hazard. Other common serotypes that are associated with human infection in America include Javiana, Newport, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Muenchen, Infantis (fsis. usda. gov). Signs and Symptoms                                   Signs and symptoms include fever, diarrhea and abdominal cramps.

While the illness can last up to seven days, the majority of people recover without treatment. In some people, however, diarrhea can be so severe necessitating the hospitalization of the patient. One of the unique characteristics of the hazard is that it is an ever-present serovar able to encourage gastroenteritis in a wide range of unrelated host pieces (Hauser, Tietze, and Helmuth, p. 4601).                                   The outbreak occurred between November 2010 and February  9th, 2011. Up to 140 people were infected with illnesses.

The source of the outbreak was identified as the consumption of Spicy Sprouts and Tiny Greens Alfalfa Sprouts. These sprouts had been distributed to customers in groceries, groceries and farmers’ markets. The outbreak occurred in Illinois, whereby half of the illnesses were reported. Other countries where the outbreak occurred were Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri. The onset of the outbreak was observed in Illinois, whereby customers consumed sandwiches that contained sprouts. This was first experienced in Jimmy John’ s outlets. Treatments for the hazard that were used were antibiotics. As a result of the outbreak, food safety regulations became very strict.

There are prevention methods that are currently in use. These include laboratory, state together with local health department epidemiology, and environmental health capacity. These are used in the surveillance of the disease and can be used for outbreak response (ScholarlyEditions, p. 12- 16).   Investigation                       The source of the outbreak was identified using various investigative methods. Firstly, to identify illness cases that may be part of the outbreak, the investigators made use of DNA analysis of Salmonella bacteria that had been obtained using diagnostic testing.

After diagnosing patients, the FDA together with the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) carried out an inspection of the Tiny Greens Organic Farm. Using product samples and environmental ones as well, the FDA established that the product samples were negative. According to the environmental sample, however, the hazard was established. Using genetic testing methods, the investigators established that the positive sample was impossible to differentiate from the strain of the outbreak. This was achieved using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with the help of two enzymes. The results of the inspection by FDA at Tiny Greens were an FDA-483 being issued to Tiny Greens for a number of conditions that developed a noteworthy risk of cross-contamination of products of Tiny Greens (Hauser, Tietze, and Helmuth, p.


References "Serotypes Profile of Salmonella Isolates from Meat and Poultry Products." (2012):

Hauser, Elisabeth, et al. "Pork Contaminated with Salmonella enterica Serovar 4,[5],12:i:−, an Emerging Health Risk for Humans ." Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2010): 76(14): 4601–4610. .

ScholarlyEditions. Advances in Salmonella Research and Treatment: 2011 Edition, ScholarlyBrief. ScholarlyEditions, 2012. "FDA Food Code 2009: Preface." US Food and Drug Administration (2012): m188264.htm.

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