"Public Health Strategies for Preventing Deadly Chronic Diseases" is an excellent example of a paper on social and family issues. Various researches carried out indicate that the main cause of deadly chronic diseases is major mortality and morbidity caused in many countries. These diseases include respiratory diseases, heart diseases, stroke, cancer, and diabetes. These diseases have some common risk factors, which are not related to genetics, and these may include smoking tobacco, consumption of unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise and access to preventive care. Various interventions and strategies are used to modify the risks and to prevent diseases.
These may be such as those aimed at reducing the use of tobacco and those aimed to encourage people to increase their physical exercise. Public health, however, focuses on three levels which are the society level, community, and individual level. At the individual level, public health provides clinical services of prevention, which include chemoprophylaxis, immunization, counseling, and screening. According to Alpin et al (124), at the community level, public health has delivered various activities through delivering activities such as health promotion activities to schools and places of work, conducting campaigns of creating awareness to the public, training and community education.
At the societal level, public health has aimed at using government intervention and public policy to change the environment and individual behavior. These may include measures such as regulation of the composition of food and the use of products of tobacco, banning advertisements concerning tobacco and introducing taxation to the products. There is also the consideration of the strategies used at national and international levels to prevent these diseases (Kiley and Gary 765). Introduction Despite the fact that a big percentage of about 60 percent of deaths are caused by chronic diseases, they are assumed on public agendas concerning health in many counties.
The counties have been observed to concentrate more on diseases that are infectious. There has been an increase in the rate of deaths caused by chronic diseases and there has also been an increase in the level of the burden caused by these diseases (Goderis et al 98). There has been the existence of a link between chronic and non -communicable diseases but this has been outdone by the fact that infectious agents have as well the ability to cause some of these diseases.
An increase in levels and prevalence of these diseases has been observed to increase and has also resulted in an increase in the rate of deaths and disability. A notable number of people of different socioeconomic levels, ages, and parts of the world have been observed to die from these diseases. The paper will, therefore, discuss the public health strategies that are aimed at effectively preventing diseases. It will consider the measures that are taken by the new public health, which uses more multidisciplinary and holistic approaches, compared to those of the traditional public health that had a limited scope.
The new public health has consideration in ways of dealing with individual factors that cause these diseases at individual societal and community levels (Corte et al 215). Strategies to prevent diseases There are several risk factors that are shared by all or a number of these diseases. The public health has therefore recognized the need for reducing the risk factors that are shared by a majority of these diseases as a way of reducing their prevalence.
These factors are lack of physical exercise, unhealthy diet, and use of tobacco (Schoolwerth et al 57). These are seen as causative agents to most of these diseases and health care has therefore established preventive measures in this respect, that modify health behaviors to reduce the disease burden caused by the diseases which include cancer, respiratory diseases, heart diseases, diabetes, and stroke. Public health has therefore recognized the need for establishing ways of creating and increasing awareness of these diseases establishing the required changes in behavior, promoting, and increasing the timeliness of screening practices for these diseases.
There is an increased need for changing the environment and individual behavior in the promotion of health and reduction of the levels of chronic diseases in society. The appropriate measures focus on three levels, which are the individual level, community, and society level. The major strategies, therefore, are clinical preventive measures, public policy on health and programs that are community-based Caspersen et al 1489). Public policy on health strategy utilizes government intervention in order to change both environmental and individual behavior in the promotion of health and prevention of these diseases in the society.
The opening of the link between the health of the population, social, environmental and economic policy, medical care and genetic potential is evidence of government effort and intervention. Programs based on the community are delivered at a population level by the local institutions. These programs might target schools or even places of work and will include programs for health promotion, training, education on the community, campaigns of creating awareness, reforms for delivery of health care and public health (Mendy et al 101).
Clinical services of prevention focus on the individuals to prevent and ensure that the diseases are detected early. The preventive services for the diseases are delivered to the patients by health workers and there has been an adoption of an approach that categorizes the preventive care to four types of services. These are counseling services for behavior, screening services for the diseases, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis. Cost-effectiveness is considered in determining the appropriate preventive measure, in the sense that it results in a higher rate of reduction of the disease burden.
The most effective in this respect has been established to being screening and prevention of tobacco use, hypertension, breast, colorectal and cervical cancer (Gonzalez et al 250). The preventive measure concerning tobacco use aims at both reducing the direct use of tobacco and exposure to smoke that is second hand in the population and the effectiveness of this measure is observed in all the three levels, which has been established in its ability to reduce the disease and premature death.
The public policy concerned with reducing use and exposure of tobacco are policies such as increasing the rate of taxes on tobacco to ensure that the consumption is reduced. Another policy is one that regulates exposure to tobacco in the environment by restricting its use in some areas, regulating what should be contained in tobacco products for instance by requiring the disclosure of its toxic effects and banning advertising of tobacco. Community-based programs will focus on measures such as the promotion of health programs at work and offering systems that support the community to quit smoking (Al-Aly et al 1965). Clinical individual measures will include offering clinical guidelines on how to treat dependence on tobacco and offering pharmaceuticals that are effective in the treatment of tobacco dependence and use.
Screening of the use of tobacco use is another measure whereby health care providers are expected to enquire about the patient's statuses on using. The public policies that are issued in concern for a healthy diet are aimed at restricting access to diets that are not healthy and to increase the access to those that are healthy.
These include the policy to disclose the health risks, requiring cafeterias to operate with a diverse choice for fruits and other nutritious foods, including warnings for use of some foods. Community-based programs include programs in workplaces that are aimed at controlling obesity and overweight, and the clinical programs include clinical screening for obesity to patients who visit the health care services and advising them on the appropriate diets to take (Farkas et al 175). Conclusion Chronic diseases have contributed to a large number of deaths and this has raised concern for public health to come up with strategies for preventing these diseases.
The paper has focused on these diseases and has discussed them on three levels which are the individual, societal and community levels. Public health has been observed to undertake the most effective policies and the effectiveness has been considered on the ability to attain results in a reduction of the rate of occurrence of these diseases and deaths caused by these diseases.
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