"Factors that Could Trigger Migraine" is a perfect example of a paper on symptoms. Among the common factors that can trigger migraine includes excessive internal or external stress, lack of sleep, diet, and menses (Slap, 2008: 106). For instance, eye strains caused by excessive exposure to computers or a sudden change in weather may cause a person to experience migraines. Nursing Intervention The best intervention for patients with severe migraine is to allow them to have some time to rest in a dark, cool, and quiet room for approximately 20 minutes immediately after administering some medication (Slap, 2008: 106).
Other equally effective nursing intervention for migraine includes the use of relaxation techniques and the proper management of stress (Slap, 2008: 107). Often times, stress caused by excessive worrying or anxiety can be lessened through the provision of effective counseling. Commonly Prescribed Medications Two of the commonly prescribed medications for migraine includes: (1) 5 to 10 mg/kg of Ibuprofen per orem every 2 to 4 hours; and (2) 25 to 100 mg of Imitrex (Sumatriptan) per orem every 2 hours (Slap, 2008: 106). Ibuprofen is classified as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) whereas Imitrex is classified as a Triptan drug class.
Both NSAIDs and Triptans are generally part of the basic nursing intervention when managing acute migraine or headache (Slap, 2008: 107; Cohen, 2004: 16). Mechanism of Action and Potential Side Effects Ibuprofen’ s mechanism of action reverses the inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) which eventually suppresses prostaglandin synthesis as it inhibits the lipo-oxygenase enzyme production synthesis on leukotriene B4 as well as the 11 and/or 15 monohydroxyeicosatetranoic acids (Saeb-Parsy et al. , 1999: 242). Common side effects of Ibuprofen include mild nausea, headache, heartburn, and depression (Saeb-Parsy et al. , 1999: 242). The mechanism of action of Triptans focuses on “ blocking the serotonin receptors” found in the brain’ s blood vessels (Cohen, 2004: 16).
It means that this particular drug can successfully reduce inflammation or dilation of the artery. Oftentimes, Triptans such as the Sumatriptan are considered as serotonin agonists which may cause a significant “ increase in vasoconstriction” (Slap, 2008: 107). For this reason, the use of Triptans is contraindicated to patients with “ basilar artery migraine” or “ hemiplegic” (Slap, 2008: 107) and other diseases such as coronary heart problem, cerebrovascular problem, material disease, and arterial hypertension (Robbins, Grosberg, & Lipton, 2013).
Common side effects of Triptans include the tightening of the chest and the paresthesias of extremities (Robbins, Grosberg, & Lipton, 2013). Daily Headache Log Keeping a daily headache log is important in determining the main causes of migraines and the patient’ s responses to healthcare intervention (Slap, 2008: 106). The daily headache log should include the exact date and time the headache begins and ended, frequency and duration of migraine, description of pain (i. e.
throbbing, pressing, piercing, etc. ), pain intensity using a pain-rating scale, symptoms of migraine, warning signs of a migraine, duration of sleep, food took prior to migraine, list of activities prior to migraine, other internal or external factors that may trigger a migraine, and medications taken to control migraine (Slap, 2008: 106).
Cohen, J. (2004). The Magnesium Solution for Migraine Headaches: The Complete Guide to Using Magnesium to Prevent and Relieve Migraine & Cluster Headaches Naturally. NY: Square One Publishers.
Robbins, M., Grosberg, B., & Lipton, R. (2013). Headache. Wiley Blackwell.
Saeb-Parsy, K., Assomull, R., Khan, F., Saeb-Parsy, K., & Kelly, E. (1999). Instant Pharmacology. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Slap, G. (2008). Adolescent Medicine: Requisites. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Inc.