"Mé niè re Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment" is a wonderful example of a paper on symptoms. Meniere’ s disease is a rare condition that affects the inner ear. It causes hearing loss, vertigo and tinnitus. One of the primary symptoms is feeling excessive pressure inside the ear. Those affected by the disease experience sudden attacks and the manifestation of symptoms which could last anywhere between two to three hours. For some, a whole day could end before these symptoms completely vanish (Leong, 2011). The symptoms vary from one individual to the next, and so is the severity of individual cases.
It could be mild to some while causing life-long disabilities to others. Practitioners link it to endolymphatic hydrops, which is the occurrence of excess fluids in the inner ear. It differs from benign positional vertigo in that Meniere does not have repeated symptoms of vertigo. Instead, Meniere is diagnosed through multiple symptoms, which include vertigo but not tied to vertigo alone like in the case of benign positional vertigo (Leong, 2011). Diagnosis Carrying out a diagnosis on Meniere’ s disease may take more than a test to distinguish between other similar problems that affect the ear, for example, individual suffering from migraines will also experience hearing problems.
A few symptoms, therefore, cannot directly point to Meniere’ s disease. The best diagnosis will involve tracking the symptoms over time, with vertigo, hearing loss and tinnitus being the major symptoms examined (Leong, 2011). It could also involve undergoing an audiometric test which analyses the different sounds and pitches as experienced by the patient over time. An otoacoustic emission test may also be used to diagnose the disease and measure response from the ear by playing quiet clicking noises around it (Da Cruz, 2014). Symptoms of Episodic Vertigo Vertigo is one of the most common and most noticeable among the symptoms of Meniere’ s disease.
It gives a sensation that the world and everything around the patient are spinning. It is accompanied by other symptoms such as dizziness, feeling sickly, and balance problems. The patients have walking or standing problems, where drop attacks may be frequent and which lead to sudden falling (Chen & Chen, 2011). The patient does not lose consciousness after the fall, but feels a push and pull force that could incapacitate them until the attack subsides or medication takes effect.
In severe cases, sweating, palpations and diarrhea are some of the noticeable attributes. These attacks are episodic and could occur and last unpredictably (Da Cruz, 2014). Treatment of Meniere and Episodic Vertigo An absolute treatment regimen is yet to be found, but there are some treatments offered to deal with the symptoms noted. Watching one’ s diet such as the inclusion of low-last diets in most of the servings has proved to be a good way of dealing with the growing need for a healthier lifestyle (Leong, 2011).
Some patients have had to undergo balance training or vestibular rehabilitation. Relaxation techniques have also been sought in dealing with the symptoms as they occur. In severe cases, surgery has been advised depending on the symptoms and their recurrence (Chen & Chen, 2011). Most patients receive antihistamine or prochlorperazine doses during attacks to treat some of the symptoms. Prochlorperazine can cause side effects such as tremors and involuntary facial movements; hence the need to be careful when administering it for such attacks.
It is essential that an ENT specialist is contacted to assist with the right diagnosis and prognosis.
Chen, J., & Chen, D. (2011). Frequent episodic vertigo is an unexpected side effect of flutamide. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 2(4), 338-340. http://www.scirp.org/journal/CTA.aspx?paperID=8006
Da Cruz, M. (2014). Ménière’s disease: A stepwise approach. Medicine Today, 15 (3), 18-26. http://www.medicinetoday.com.au/sites/default/files/cpd/MT2014-03-018-DA%20CRUZ.pdf
Leong, S. (2011). Ménière's disease. GP, 28-30. http://www.gponline.com/clinical-review-menieres-disease/ear-nose-and-throat/article/1099976