Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms – Symptoms Example

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"Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms" is a great example of a paper on symptoms. Inflammation is the response by vascular tissues to any stimuli perceived by the body as harmful, harmful stimuli include damaged cells, irritants, and pathogens. This inflammation is indeed a protective endeavor by any organism to do away with injurious stimuli, which in the end result in the healing process. According to Eming et al (514), the four principal symbols of inflammation are “ redness, swelling, heat, and dolor. ”   Heat and redness are caused by intense blood flow at the body basic temperature to sites, which are inflamed.

In addition, the tumor is due to the accumulation or buildup of fluid (Eming et al 516).   Finally, dolor is the release of chemicals, which arouse nerve endings. Neutrophils are a prevalent type of white blood cells and they add up to about 50-70% of all the blood cells. They are phagocytic i. e. they can ingest other cells despite the fact that they do not survive the act. According to Eming et al (518), Neutrophils during infection, are the first to reach the spot of infection through a complex process regarded as chemotaxis.

The core elements of pus are Neutrophils and are vital for whitish color.   Neutrophils are normally in the bloodstream of organisms, however, they move when there is an infection, the movement is under a process called chemotaxis. They then coat the targets in opsonins a process known as antibody opsonization. The process is normally fast, it is approximated to take an hour for them to reach an infected spot. Upon ingesting, any pathogen found there is ultimate death; the process is regarded as phagocytosis. Lymphadenopathy refers to a disease of the lymph nodes where they grow large in size.   Lymph nodes are put into the category in the lymphatic system.

Lymph nodes are a collection of lymphoid tissues where lymph passes while making its way to the blood. Eming et al (519), argue that “ it entails afferent lymph vessels, which bring in the lymph and then drain out by an efferent lymph vessel. ” The lymphatic symptoms are responsible for the removal of the interstitial fluid from the tissues, transports and absorb fatty acids, transport white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones as well as transport antigen-presenting cells to the lymph nodes whereby the immune response is stimulated.

        Tonsils are always in pairs, they contain soft tissues of masses, which are located at the back of the human throat (pharynx). A tonsil entails tissues, which are adjacent to lymph nodes, they are enclosed by mucosa, which is pink in color. Through each tonsil are pits referred to as crypts. The tonsils are in the category a section of the lymphatic system and play the role of fighting infections.   However, studies have shown that the removal of tonsils does not seem to have any magnitude on infection.

Tonsil increases in size as the age increases; however, at puberty they reach their optimum size, thereafter they gradually shrivel. Fever is a positive feedback mechanism, which acts towards the course of change and is the opposite of thermoregulation. Pyrogens are substances, which are mostly in use to induce fever. Although external pathogens are the ultimate reason for the fever, the internal pyrogens are the ones, which directly cause the augment into the thermoregulatory set point (Eming et al 520).

Pyrogen causes a release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Leucocytes are cells found in animals, they are used in the immune system where they a play a critical role in defending the body against foreign materials and any other infectious diseases. Five different leukocytes exist, however; they are produced from a multipotent cell found organism bone marrow. They live for about three days in the body of an average person. The amount and quantity of leukocytes are seen as a sign or symptom of a disease (Eming et al 524).


Eming, Sabine, Thomas Krieg and Davidson Jeffrey. "Inflammation in Wound Repair: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms." Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2007): 514-525.Print
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