"Rejection of the Transplanted Tissue"' is an outstanding example of a paper on transplantation and donation. Transplant rejection transpires when the recipient’ s immune system rejects the transplanted tissues (Nather, 2001:553). In the work compiled by Nather (2001:553), transplant rejection has been a characteristic of a majority of transplants, but rejection can be minimized by defining the exact molecular semblance between the recipient and the donors. This, according to Nather (2001:553), can be done using immunosuppressant medicines after transplant has taken place. This essay shall attempt to assess the various therapies that are used to prevent the rejection of transplanted tissues.
The essay will also apply an understanding of the normal functioning of the immune system by assessing immune mechanisms and how healthy individuals function. Cell therapy In the work of Kelland (2011: 1) and Baharvand & Aghdami (2013: 49), cell therapy is one of the chief remedies to the rejection of transplanted tissues. Kelland (2011: 1) explains that cell therapy entails the treatment of new organs in an attempt to ensure that they function well after transplant. Kelland (2011: 1) adds on to indicate that cell therapy has made human transplants easier since humans see an injection of immune cells after removal.
This means that the recipients are trained not to reject the new tissue. Kelland (2011: 1) emphasizes new cells have been generated that can control rejection after a transplant. The article gives an example of harvested human T cells that were cultured in a laboratory using cilostamide drugs. In relation to human immune system functioning, culturing human cells from a donor allows for the recognition of donor tissues; thus, reduce the chances of rejection of the tissue.
With the experiment with a mouse in the research work of Halberstadt & Emerich (2011: 591), the tested human Regulatory T cells in mice also operate the same in humans. The normal functioning of the immune system works well since the rejection of donor organs is abridged, and with time the drugs induced into the system are steadily taken out, until when the recipient of the organs no longer requires the drugs. Immunosuppressive Drug Therapy Immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs) are prescribed to reduce the immune system of the recipient of organs, to prevent organ graft rejection (Gordon, Hewitt & Lee, 2008: 446).
Hakim & Danovitch (2001: 195) explain that Immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs) have been credited for ensuring the survival of transplanted organs, as well as a successful transplantation process. In their work, Gordon, Hewitt & Lee (2008: 313) vividly explain the administration of ISDs in the transplant process- during the induction phase, where immunosuppression is done immediately after transplant, maintenance phase after the modification of the transplanted organ in the receiver and reversal phase that checks for an occurrence of identified rejection. For the normal functioning of the immune system, Gordon, Hewitt & Lee (2008: 313) emphasize that ISD monitoring be undertaken after transplant.
Monitoring prevents an occurrence of any rejection of organs after transplant and a reaction with supratherapeutic and subtherapeutic drug levels. Of essence, treatment outcome after transplant is increased, whilst chances of side effects, rejection chances record a lessened trend (Gordon, Hewitt & Lee, 2008: 172). Arguably, ISDs promote patient care and improve the quality of life of patients after organ transplants. The HLA system In Bradley & Bolton (n. d.: 207), HLA matching has played a great role in ensuring successful organ transplants.
HLA system is inclusive of matching methods like tissue typing that determines the HLA type of the recipients and the donors. Tissue typing, according to Bradley & Bolton (n. d.: 207) allows for a cross-match test on existing antibodies against the HLA alleles by the lymphocytes of the donor. Finally, the HLA system identifies the specificity of HLA’ s circulating antibodies in an attempt to reduce the unsuitability of the donor types (Sato & Klein, 2000: 704; Nelson, 2001: 75). Bradley & Bolton (n. d.: 205), argue that HLA matching has been applicable in the case of a kidney transplant, and the outcomes have been encouraging over the years.
Though some analysts argue that HLA contributes less to graft survival, its cellular distribution as prescribed by the role to be played creates a strong immune system in the recipient’ s body. Bradley & Bolton (n. d.: 207), give an example of endosomal proteins producing peptides. With gene duplication taking place in the case of the HLA system, Bradley & Bolton (n. d.: 206) are of the opinion that the chance of identifying a compatible donor within ethnic groups becomes easier.
The HLA system can be indicated to redeem the body’ s immune system to fight invaders in the body through detection and immediate elimination even after the transplant. Regulatory T cells in organ transplant Jiang (2008: 308) and Sakaguchi & Wood (2003: 199) indicate that with more research being carried out in the characterization of regulatory T cells, there have been numerous improvements in the application of therapies in organ transplants. Regulatory T cells have been indicated to control immune responsiveness to alloantigens that may restrict the transplantation process (Sakaguchi & Wood, 2003: 200). Sakaguchi & Wood (2003: 199) explain that alloantigens react with the T cells that have high levels of CD25 resulting in the killing of many of the cells that might have harbored successful transplants.
Jiang (2008: 308) explains that T cells in transplantation are immune-regulated allowing them to maintain specific immunological unresponsiveness especially in vivo, and at times control T cell homeostasis. This process, according to Jiang (2008: 308), prevents the occurrence of an autoimmune infection that might occur in the host.
Jiang (2008: 308) adds on to say that the suppression of the immune response has been in use for a while and that has made organ transplant successful. Regulatory T-cells can arguably be said to control rejection and create a good environment for unresponsiveness to alloantigens in vivo that had otherwise survived for years. The immune system and its functionality are boosted and remain with a chance to adopt the ‘ new faces’ in the transplant so as to fight invaders in the body. Conclusively organ transplant has not had its smooth endings, but with more research done on mechanisms of dealing with transplant rejection, the transplant has become more efficacious.
The essay has shed light on Immunosuppressive Drug Therapy, cell therapy, HLA system, and Regulatory T cells in organ transplants as mechanisms of controlling organ transplants.
Baharvand , H., & Aghdami, N., 2013. Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy. London: Springer.
Bradley, A., & Bolton, E., n.d. Transplantation immunology. Available at: http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/13/9780199586875.pdf
Gordon, C., Hewitt, C., & Lee, A., 2008. Transplantation of Composite Tissue Allografts. London: Springer.
Hakim, N., & Danovitch, G., 2001. Transplantation Surgery. London: Springer.
Halberstadt, C., & Emerich, D., 2011. Cellular Transplantation: From Laboratory to Clinic London: Academic Press.
Kelland, K., 2011. Cell Therapy Aims To Prevent Transplant Rejection. Reuters, Wed May 18, 2011. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/18/us-transplants-cells-idUSTRE74H60620110518.
Nather, A., 2001.The Scientific Basis of Tissue Transplantation. London: World Scientific Press.
Nelson, K., 2001. HLA typing. In: Clinical immunology 2nd ed., R. Rich, T. Fleisher, B. Kotzin, W. Shearer, and H. Schroeder, eds.,. London: Harcourt.
Sato, A., & Klein, J., 2000. ‘The HLA System, first of two parts. N Engl J. Med. 7, 702-709.
2000. ‘The HLA System, second of two parts. N Engl J. Med. 14, 782-786.
Jiang, S., 2008. Regulatory T cells and Clinical Application. London: Springer.
Sakaguchi, S., & Wood, K., 2003. ‘Regulatory T cells in transplantation tolerance.’ Nature Reviews Immunology 3, 199-210 (March 2003) | doi:10. 1038/nri1027