Decision-Making among ADHD People – Virus Example

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"Decision-Making among ADHD People" is an impressive example of a paper on the virus. The human body is susceptible to various diseases and illnesses that can be detrimental to health. However, modern advances in scientific research are continuing to play a leading role in developing proper and effective medical interventions. One of these diseases that has so far affected a good number of people, with proper medication having been developed is Tularemia (Garcia & Henry 2010). According to Allen & Schulert (2009), Tularemia is a disease whose causative agent is the Francisella tularemia.

      Forsman & Johansson (2005), according to their research, describe Francisella tularemia as a pathogenic species that belongs to Gram-negative and rod-shaped coccobacillus, being an aerobe bacterium. Tularemia, in itself, is described as being a very lethal disease that can cause the death of so many people when not diagnosed and treated in good time (Parker et al. 2009). According to research done by Kingry & Petersen (2014), Francisella tularemia is a facultative, fastidious intracellular bacterium that thrives well in the presence of cysteine, without which it cannot grow. The research further reveals that due to the virus’ low infectious dosage, high virulence, and the ease of its spreading through aerosols, F.

tularensis   has often been classified by the American government as a “ Tier I select Agent. ” This has been done alongside several other probable agents of the highly dreaded bioterrorism like the Ebola virus, Bacillus anthracis among many others (Zubay 2005). Modes of transmission According to Shafferman, Arie & Baruch (2010), documented evidence through research indicates that infections associated with the F. tularensis are caused by various kinds of arthropods like a midge, lice, fleas, mosquitoes, ticks, and even flies.

Irrespective of the diversity exhibited by the arthropods infected naturally, only a few of them have so far been noted to cause this virus to humans. Sanchez, Garry & Denis (2004) in their research, identified deer flies, mosquitoes, horse flies, and hard ticks as the main causes of transmission of this virus to people. In the past, outbreaks of the tularemia disease as a result of these transmitter agents have happened several times since these transmission agents were realized in the 1900s. According to Long, Larry & Charles (2012), one of the most recent outbreaks after a very long time happened in the United States in 2007 in Utah.

Inasmuch as a number of people succumbed to the disease, so far, scientists have been successful in developing effective intervention approaches. This perhaps the reason why the diseases did not claim the lives of many people as would have been the case several years ago when medical interventions were still scarce. Treatment and prevention So far, tularemia can be treated effectively using tetracycline-class drugs like doxycycline or streptomycin.

However, Lovullo, et al (2006) explains that other drugs like gentamicin are also effective medical interventions with their availability being much easier compared to streptomycin. Additionally, Kingry & Petersen (2014), in their research, explain that tentative evidence exists, which supports the utilization of fluoroquinolones as affective approaches towards the treatment of the diseases.   As preventive approaches, people are supposed to ensure that they love in clean environments that are free of insects like flies and mosquitoes, which are the most known transmission agents. However, so far, vaccines have been developed that can be used, but only for those groups assumed to be high risk.

The use of the vaccine-like for post-exposure prophylaxis is not often recommended. It is equally important to remove any ticks on domestic animals, using eye protection and rubber gloves when one is handling animals infected with the disease.              


Allen, L., & Schulert, G. (2009). Francisella Tularensis. Intracellular Niches of Microbes, 23(10): 415-429.

Forsman, M., & Johansson, A. (2005). Tularemia ( Francisella tularensis ). Encyclopedia of Bioterrorism Defense. 1(10): 234-265.

Garcia, L. S & Henry D. I. (2010). Clinical microbiology procedures handbook. Washington, DC: ASM Press.

Kingry, L., & Petersen, J. (2014). Comparative review of Francisella tularensis and Francisella novicida. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 1(2): 112-134.

Long, S. S, Larry K. P & Charles G. P. (2012). Principles and practice of pediatric infectious diseases. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lovullo, E., Sherrill, L., Perez, L., & Pavelka, M. (2006). Genetic tools for highly pathogenic Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis. Microbiology, 11(5): 3425-3435.

Parker, C., Wigley, S., Garrity, G., & Taylor, D. (2009). Nomenclature Abstract for Francisella tularensis tularensis. The NamesforLife Abstracts. 12(3): 67-87.

Sanchez, J. C, Garry L. C & Denis F. H (2004). Biomedical applications of proteomics. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH

Shafferman, A, Arie O, & Baruch V (2010). The Challenge of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms Mechanisms of Virulence and Novel Medical Countermeasures. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands

Zubay, G. L. (2005). Agents of bioterrorism: pathogens and their weaponization. New York: Columbia University Press.

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