"HINI and Swine Flu" is a great example of a paper on the virus. H1N1 viral strain has displayed a triple recollection of genes procured from the avian, swine and human virus. It first came in existence in Mexico and the United States in the comparatively warm month of April 2009, but soon became pandemic. Transmission of H1N1 is through fomites or droplets with an incubation span of 2-7 days. It is impossible to differentiate the clinical picture of H1N1 with other virus borne respiratory infection as the symptoms encompass fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia, this is also associated with GI distress.
The riskiest group includes children < 5 years, elderly, expectant female and those who are on aspirin. The disease display pneumonia and respiratory collapse. the other infrequent symptoms comprise conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. The virus is analysed by means of RT PCR, culture or augmentation in neutralizing Abs. One identified the patient needs to be isolated, must exercise respiratory protocols, good personal hygiene, chemoprophylaxis and medications encompassing antiviral drugs- Oseltamivir and Zamanavir and vaccine that came in existence capable of providing protection against 2009 H1N1 flu virus, the influenza B virus and H3N2 virus. Introduction Influenza spreads potentially in the community and is capable of causing spread and intensity in the illness of the patient.
The virus is capable of changing its antigenic forms from 1918 to 2009. The H1N1 virus capable of causing swine flu came in picture in the month of April 2009 and became pandemic involving around 170 countries, with a rapid pace within the period of 2 months. It gripped more than 1.7 lakh individuals with a steady rise in the victims.
The reason for this augmentation is ignorance of individuals towards mild illness, no authorized testing or diagnosis procured. Upon epidemic, intensification investigation is confined to hospitalized cases. Aan evolution was made not only in the surveillance system but also to monitor the illness of the individual. According to WHO a global fall in the transmission was observed with a decrease in the Southern Hemisphere temperature. This is considered to be due to rise or fall in respiratory diseases. The strain in circulation is H1N1 which is assumed to be an inheritance of influenza pandemic occurred in 1918-1919 and this virus has modified well in these 92 years.
Human is the indirect host and is known that pig serves as a host for human as well as avian species. Its transmission is through droplet nuclei as well as body discharges. The virus invades the respiratory epithelium after the incubation duration of 1-7 days. Damage to epithelium we followed by the immune response. Characters displayed by the patients encompass fever, cough, sore throat, diarrhoea, vomiting followed by hospitalization. Management of the Disease: The above table provides a brief idea about the onset and spread of the H1N1.
It is essential to understand the management of H1N1 or swine flu. The following steps are required to be followed: Screening of the patients in the clinic/ hospital so as to minimize the possibility of multiplication of infection. Assessment of the symptoms and its rigorousness for hospitalization. Supportive care should be provided. Cases of a critical illness must be admitted to ICU. Supportive Care: Encompasses dose of antipyretics, ample of fluids and rest. Constant check for dyspnea, chest pain and cough with sputum examination must be monitored, serious cases must be hospitalized and must be kept for a ventilator.
The supportive care must also be accompanied by the oxygen therapy, antibiotics and antiviral. Patients with asthma, obesity and pregnancy must be monitored. Preventive Strategies: Chemoprophylaxis should be performed for susceptible cases depending upon the weight and age. Control measures encompassing vaccination and antiviral prophylaxis must be followed. Respiratory hygiene must be maintained and therefore isolation of the critical cases is essential. As the infection spreads within the home members, home isolation becomes essential.
All the guidelines for control measures must be well-read and strictly followed.
ReferencesSebastian, M. R., Lodha, R., Kabra, S. K. 2009. Swine Origin Influenza (Swine Flu). Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol 76. 833- 841.